Friday, May 7, 2021
Mitochondrial Health

Shuttle Mechanisms (Malate-Aspartate and Glycerol-Phosphate)

Moof’s Medical Biochemistry Video Course:

This video describes why NADH’s from glycolysis can be worth 1.5 OR 2.5 ATP.

For Related Practice Problems with Worked Video Solutions on Enzymes, visit


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47 thoughts on “Shuttle Mechanisms (Malate-Aspartate and Glycerol-Phosphate)
  1. Really helpful! Thanks a lot! 🙂
    One thing I don't get though – how can DHAP diffuse out of the mitochondrion if it can't enter without being converted into glycerol-3-phosphate?

  2. Hey! Great explanation. thank you. Got a question though… what is the difference between the Glycerol-3-phosphate shuttle and the glycerol 3 phosphate dehydrogenase that is located in the inner membrane. Because I am a little bit confused because supposedly this dehydrogenase just oxidizes and reduces but nothing gets transported into the membrane other than the electrons that are later transferred onto Q. Can you help? Thanks again.

  3. this makes me happy. professor did NOT explain it nearly this well, and was entirely confused.

    question: why does the second shuttle even exist if the first one is more efficient?

  4. so just to make sure I have this right the Glycerol 3 Phosphate shuttle is the way electrons get passed into Complex II and the Malate Aspartate shuttle is how electrons get passed into Complex I?

  5. If malate dehydrogenase can reoxidize NADH, then why does it need to cross the mitochondrial membrane, can't it just go back to taking part in glycolysis by staying in the cytosol ?
    Thanks for the videos, they're great !!

  6. With the malate aspartate shuttle as explained here, the mitochondrial matrix is losing Ammonia to make Aspartate, while the cytosol is gaining Ammonia from the Aspartate, so how does this come back into balance?

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