Friday, March 31, 2023
Mitochondrial Health

Mitochondria | Wikipedia audio article

This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article:

00:02:47 1 History
00:06:21 2 Origin and evolution
00:10:01 3 Structure
00:10:52 3.1 Outer membrane
00:12:58 3.2 Intermembrane space
00:13:49 3.3 Inner membrane
00:15:39 3.3.1 Cristae
00:16:42 3.4 Matrix
00:18:07 3.5 Mitochondria-associated ER membrane (MAM)
00:20:12 3.5.1 Phospholipid transfer
00:22:19 3.5.2 Calcium signaling
00:26:43 3.5.3 Molecular basis for tethering
00:28:33 3.5.4 Perspective
00:29:23 4 Organization and distribution
00:31:20 5 Function
00:31:56 5.1 Energy conversion
00:33:08 5.1.1 Pyruvate and the citric acid cycle
00:36:23 5.1.2 NADH and FADHsub2/sub: the electron transport chain
00:38:26 5.1.3 Heat production
00:39:31 5.2 Storage of calcium ions
00:41:38 5.3 Additional functions
00:42:56 6 Cellular proliferation regulation
00:44:44 7 Genome
00:47:35 7.1 Alternative genetic code
00:48:51 7.2 Evolution and diversity
00:49:43 7.3 Replication and inheritance
00:55:51 7.4 DNA repair
00:57:29 7.5 Lack of mitochondrial DNA
00:57:57 8 Population genetic studies
00:59:56 9 Dysfunction and disease
01:00:05 9.1 Mitochondrial diseases
01:04:06 9.2 Possible relationships to aging
01:05:27 10 In popular culture

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The mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a double-membrane-bound organelle found in most eukaryotic organisms. Some cells in some multicellular organisms may, however, lack them (for example, mature mammalian red blood cells). A number of unicellular organisms, such as microsporidia, parabasalids, and diplomonads, have also reduced or transformed their mitochondria into other structures. To date, only one eukaryote, Monocercomonoides, is known to have completely lost its mitochondria. The word mitochondrion comes from the Greek μίτος, mitos, “thread”, and χονδρίον, chondrion, “granule” or “grain-like”. Mitochondria generate most of the cell’s supply of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), used as a source of chemical energy. A mitochondrion is thus termed the powerhouse of the cell.Mitochondria are commonly between 0.75 and 3 μm in diameter but vary considerably in size and structure. Unless specifically stained, they are not visible. Nevertheless, the development of holotomographic microscopy has given rise to staining-free, high quality mitochondria detection and live visualization. In addition to supplying cellular energy, mitochondria are involved in other tasks, such as signaling, cellular differentiation, and cell death, as well as maintaining control of the cell cycle and cell growth. Mitochondrial biogenesis is in turn temporally coordinated with these cellular processes. Mitochondria have been implicated in several human diseases, including mitochondrial disorders, cardiac dysfunction, heart failure and autism.The number of mitochondria in a cell can vary widely by organism, tissue, and cell type. For instance, red blood cells have no mitochondria, whereas liver cells can have more than 2000. The organelle is composed of compartments that carry out specialized functions. These compartments or regions include the outer membrane, the intermembrane space, the inner membrane, and the cristae and matrix.
Although most of a cell’s DNA is contained in the cell nucleus, the mitochondrion has its own independent genome that shows substantial similarity to bacterial genomes. Mitochondrial proteins (proteins transcribed from mitochondrial DNA) vary depending on the tissue and the species. In humans, 615 distinct types of protein have been identified from cardiac mitochondria, whereas in rats, 940 proteins have been reported. The mitochondrial proteome is thought to be dynamically regulated.


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