Friday, March 31, 2023
Mitochondrial Health

Mutations (Updated)

Join the Amoeba Sisters as they explain gene and chromosome mutations, and explore the significance of these changes. This updated video has improved audio and images! Check out our updated handout on and expand for table of contents!

Factual Reference:
OpenStax Biology 2nd Edition, Biology 2e. OpenStax CNX. May 8, 2019[email protected]

Codons and the amino acids they code for is represented by standard charts can be found in the public domain. While the rectangle chart is the common format, there may be other ways to represent the information. P.S. If exploring more about mutations, check out this cool codon chart that includes mutations(!!) in the public domain:

***Further Reading Suggestions to Go Beyond This Content!***
-Yes, mutations can happen in viruses! Check out master teacher John Mead’s National Geographic Education blog post on this with the influenza virus:

-Mutations in fruit flies? Learn more:

-Careers in Genetics?
National Society of Genetic Counselors:
Flowchart from American Society of Human Genetics-

The Amoeba Sisters videos demystify science with humor and relevance. The videos center on Pinky’s certification and experience in teaching biology at the high school level. Learn more about our videos here:

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Our intro music designed and performed by Jeremiah Cheshire.

End music in this video is listed free to use/no attribution required from the YouTube audio library

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Our Amoeba Sisters en Español channel has our videos dubbed in Spanish!


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26 thoughts on “Mutations (Updated)
  1. We like to pin comments for clarifications when they are needed. At the point where "random" is mentioned in the video, it is discussing the effect of whether the mutation is beneficial to the organism – this is why we follow the sentence with, "The organism can't will itself to get a certain mutation." We chose to address this, because it's important to understand organisms are not "choosing their mutations to adapt and evolve" – a frequent misconception. An additional, lengthier source from Berkeley that also explains "random" in regards to mutations is here: But this is different than the mutation rate or frequency which can be altered by both external and internal factors (we actually mention some at 1:38 ). To read more about this, we found a great further reading article from Nature Education – you can scroll down to their answer "Are Mutations Random?"

    Just a note: in case you've seen our old mutations video, this is an updated form. The script is nearly the same, although we think we improved explaining a silent mutation and a frameshift mutation. We also emphasized that mutations can happen in all kinds of organisms (and viruses too)! Our art has also improved as we continue to practice. No MS Paint this time ≧◡≦! You can see our milestones here: We did decide to create an updated free student mutation handout—we don't always update old video handouts, but we wanted to improve it: Still prefer the old video (and handout)? No worries! We try to not delete old videos and you can find it here:

  2. Hey… You…
    This channel is the most amazing channel I ever seen…
    Those things or topics which are not easy to understand…
    This video will help you alot…
    Through animations and by expression of the cartoons 😂😂😂in this video makes easy learning. As well as interesting 😌😌😌

  3. Hello! I'm Vietnamese. I'm 17 years old. I really happy to see and watch your videos. These makes me learn biology by heart easier and faster. Hope you can make more interesting videos like this <3 <3

  4. Dear and wise Amoeba Sisters you've become my favorite source of bio info. You talk in such a clear and concise way, and the funny and amusing illustrations accompanying your explanations put a smile on my face. You truly excel at that and gives your videos a plus. Many thanks and Congratulations!!! 🙂

  5. im watching from switzerland and thanks to you guys i have an A. you guys are a gift and i’m so thankful. i really want to thank you because every time i have a test or an exam you help me. thank you so so so so so much <3

  6. Experiments with flys showed that mutation isn't random. It's greatly influenced by the environment. Specificly information recorded by the parents bodies about the environment at point of conseption. Too hot, too cold, not enough food extra, experiments have show organisms mutate benfitial traits too quickly for it to be randome. And explaining the diversity we see with just natural selection is like trying to preform surgery with a sword. The theory lacks the fineness to do it alone.
    I always though it didn't quite fit so am great ful for these breakthroughs. Any lingering questions I had about evolution have been answered. It's a pretty important breakthrough. Maybe another update is needed?

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