CELL Structure and Function Related Disorders Eukaryotic Cell Prokaryotic Cell Biochemistry Biology
the human cell, organelles and its functions and related disorder.
The cell is the structural and functional unit of life.
there are 2 types of cells. Prokaryotic cell and Eukaryotic cell the main difference between them is small prokaryotes lack a well-defined nucleus and possess relatively simple structure. these include various bacteria. while large eukaryotes possess a well-defined nucleus and are more complex in their structure and function. Plants and animals or human composed of eukaryotic cell.
The plant cell differs from animal cell by cellulose made rigid cell wall and chloroplast.
nucleus. nucleus is the largest cellular organelle surrounded by a double membrane nuclear envelope. Nucleus contain DNA, the repository of genetic information. DNA in association with basic proteins called histone, form nucleosomes which, in turn, make up the chromosomes. the nucleus of the eukaryotic cell contains a dense body known as nucleolus it is reach in RNA, ribosomal RNA. the ground material of the nucleus is referred as nucleoplasm .it is rich in enzymes DNA polymerases and RNA polymerase.
what is Hutchinson Gilford progeria syndrome?
it is a condition of aging begin at birth. Occur as a result of distortion of nuclear envelope due to accumulation of abnormal protein called Lamina A.
the nucleus is surrounded by double membrane nuclear envelop. the outer membrane continues with the membranes of endoplasmic reticulum.at certain interval, the two nuclear membrane have nuclear pores which permit the free passage of the products synthesized in the nucleus into the surrounding cytoplasm.
there are two types of endoplasmic reticulum. rough endoplasmic reticulum and the smooth endoplasmic reticulum.
rough endoplasmic reticulum has a granular appearance due to ribosomes attach to it. ribosomes are factories of protein biosynthesis. During the process of fraction, rough ER is disrupted to form small vesicles known as microsomes.
smooth endoplasmic reticulum does not contain ribosome. it is involved in the synthesis of lipids and metabolism of drugs, besides supplying ca for the cellular function.
Golgi apparatus it is a unique cluster of membrane vesicle known as dictyosomes. the newly synthesis protein handed over to the Golgi apparatus which catalase addition of carbohydrates, lipid to the protein. certain proteins and enzymes are enclosed in membrane vesicles of Golgi apparatus and secreted from the cell after the appropriate signals .example of this digestive enzymes of pancreas.
Lysosomes. lysosomes are spherical vesicle enveloped by a single membrane. function of lysosomes is digestion of cellular substance like protein, lipids, carbohydrate and nucleic acid. Lysosome enzyme characterizes as hydrolase these include the enzymes alpha-glucosidase, cathepsins, lipase, ribonucleases. The lysosomal enzymes are responsible for maintaining the cellular compounds in a dynamic state by their degradation and recycling. Degraded leave lysosome usually by diffusion, or reutilization by the cell. certain residual products, rich in lipids and proteins collectively known as lipofuscin. lipofuscin is age pigment implicated in ageing process. as the cell dies the lysosomes rupture and release hydrolytic enzymes that results in post-mortem autolysis. the leakage of lysosomal enzymes into the cell degrades several functional macromolecules and it’s may lead to certain disorders example arthritis, muscle disorder, allergic disorders
What is Inclusion cell disease or mucolipidosis?
it is a lysosomal storage disease characterized by coarse facial feature, skeletal abnormality and mental retardation due to the absence of certain hydrolase in lysosomes.
peroxisomes also known as microbodies are a single membrane cellular body. they are spherical and oval shape. peroxisome contain the enzyme catalase. catalase protects the cell from the toxic effects of h2o2 by converting it to h2o and o2 . peroxisomes are also involved in the oxidation of long chain fatty acids and synthesis of plasmalogens and glycolipids.
what is peroxisome biogenesis disorders?
PBDs are developmental brain disorders that also result in skeletal and craniofacial dysmorphism, liver dysfunction, progressive sensorineural hearing loss, and retinopathy. due to an increased level of very long chain fatty acids and decreased concentration of plasmalogens. severe form of pbds is Zellweger syndrome condition characterized by the absence of functional peroxisomes.
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