Peroxisomes or microbodies are the membrane limited vesicles like the lysosomes. Unlike lysosomes, peroxisomes are pinched off from endoplasmic reticulum and not from the Golgi apparatus. Peroxisomes contain some oxidative enzymes such as catalase, urate oxidase
and Damino acid oxidase.
~Functions of Peroxisomes~
i. Breakdown the fatty acids by means of a process called betaoxidation
ii. Degrade the toxic substances such as hydrogen peroxide and other metabolic products by means of detoxification.
iii. Form the major site of oxygen utilization in the cells.
iv. Participate in the formation of myelin
v. Play a role in the formation of bile acids.
Mitochondrion (plural = mitochondria) is a membrane bound cytoplasmic organelle concerned with production of energy. It is a rod-shaped or oval-shaped structure with a diameter of 0.5 to 1 μ. It is covered by a bilayered membrane. The outer membrane is smooth and encloses the contents of mitochondrion.
The inner membrane is folded in the form of shelf-like inward projections called cristae and it covers the inner matrix space. Cristae contain many enzymes and other protein molecules which are involved in respiration and synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Because of these functions, the enzymes and other protein molecules in cristae are collectively known as respiratory chain or electron transport system.
Inner cavity of mitochondrion is filled with matrix which contains many enzymes. Mitochondrion moves freely in the cytoplasm of the cell. It is capable of reproducing itself. Mitochondrion contains its own deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), which is responsible for many enzymatic actions. In fact, mitochondrion is the only organelle other than nucleus, which has its own DNA.
~Functions of Mitochondria~
1. Snsthesis of ATP’s
2. Storage of energy
4. Synthesis of Proteins.
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