mitochondria mdcat | Mitochondria lecture in urdu | biology mdcat lecture | mitochondria in hindi
Mitochondria are very important organelles of eukaryotic cells, because they are involved in the
manufacture and supply of energy to the cell. They are also known as powerhouses of the cell
(Fig. 4.13). Under compound microscope they appear to be vesicles, rods or ilaments. Under an
electron microscope, they show complex morphology. Although their number, shape and internal
structure vary widely, a mitochondrion is bound by two membranes, the outer membrane is
smooth, while the inner membrane forms infoldings into the inner chamber called mitochondrial
matrix. These infolds are called cristae. The mitochondrial membranes are similar in structure to
other cell membranes. Detailed studies have shown that mitochondria also contain DNA as well as
The presence of ribosomes and DNA indicates that some proteins are synthesized in them. It is a
self replicating organelle.
The inner surface of cristae in the mitochondrial matrix has small knob like structures known as F1
particles. Mitochondrial matrix contains in it a large number of enzymes, coenzymes and
organic and inorganic salts which help in several vital metabolic processes like Kreb’s cycle, aerobicrespiration, fatty acid metabolism etc. As a result of these metabolic processes the energy extracted
from the organic food is transformed into energy rich compound ATP (adenosine triphosphate),
and the ATP then provides energy to the cell on demand. The size and number of mitochondria
varies and depends on the physiological activity of the cell.
Mitochondria extract energy from diferent components of food and convert it in the form of ATP.
This energy is used for various cellular activities. The spent energy, which is in the form of ADP is
regenerated by the mitochondria into ATP. Mitochondria is therefore described as power house of
Mitochondria lecture in urdu | mitochondria in urdu | mitochondria mdcat | mitochondria in hindi
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