The mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a double-membrane-bound organelle found in most eukaryotic organisms. Some cells in some multicellular organisms may however lack them (for example, mature mammalian red blood cells).
In 1857 Kolliker observed mitochondria in flight muscles of insects and called them as sarco-somes.
Flemming called them as Fila.
Altmann in 1890 called them as Bioplasts.
Benda gave the name mito-chondria.
Porter & Palade described their electron microscopic structure.
Mitochondria are present in all eukaryotic cells.
There are two hypotheses about the origin of mitochondria: endosymbiotic and autogenous
A mitochondrion contains outer and inner membranes composed of phospholipid bilayers and proteins. The two membranes have different properties. Because of this double-membraned organization, there are five distinct parts to a mitochondrion. They are:
1. The outer mitochondrial membrane,
2. The intermembrane space (the space between the outer and inner membranes),
3. The inner mitochondrial membrane.
4. The cristae space (formed by infoldings of the inner membrane), and
5. The matrix (space within the inner membrane).
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