The mitochondrion (plural mitochond
It is a double membranebound
organelle found eukaryotic
chondrion = granule like
Found in cytoplasm of the cell.
Power house of cell.
First observed by Richard Altman
Term mitochondria was coined by
Carl Benda (1898).
SIZE: Mitochondria range from 0.5 to 1.0 μm in diameter.
SHAPE: normally Sausage shaped,
In fibroblasts-elongated and thread like
NUMBER: Depends on type size and functional state of
Eg: An average liver cells contain around 1500
LOCATION: Cells with high enrgy requirements;
Eg:Sperm tail, Muscle, Flagella
1. Outer Membrane
2. Intermembrane Space
3. Inner Membrane
FUNCTIONS OF MITOCHONDRIA:
Energy transducer of the cell- synthesis of ATP
Kreb’s cycle in matrix
Phosphorylating system- ATPase
Extra mitochondrial inheritance:
mtDNA contains plasma genes (extra chromosomal genes)
Transmitted from mother to the offspring
Synthesis of mtDNA, RNA, protein.
Bring about gene expression through gene duplication
transcription and translation.
Synthesis 13 different polypeptides in human.