Tuesday, January 26, 2021
Mitochondrial Health

mitochondria structure and function



INTRODUCTION
 The mitochondrion (plural mitochond
ria) .[greek];
 It is a double membranebound
organelle found eukaryotic
cells.
 mito= thread
chondrion = granule like
 Found in cytoplasm of the cell.
 Power house of cell.
 First observed by Richard Altman
(1894).
 Term mitochondria was coined by
Carl Benda (1898).
SIZE: Mitochondria range from 0.5 to 1.0 μm in diameter.
SHAPE: normally Sausage shaped,
 In fibroblasts-elongated and thread like
NUMBER: Depends on type size and functional state of
cell.
Eg: An average liver cells contain around 1500
mitochondria.
LOCATION: Cells with high enrgy requirements;
Eg:Sperm tail, Muscle, Flagella
structure
1. Outer Membrane
2. Intermembrane Space
3. Inner Membrane
4. Cristae
5. Matrix
FUNCTIONS OF MITOCHONDRIA:
Energy transducer of the cell- synthesis of ATP
Kreb’s cycle in matrix
ETC system
Phosphorylating system- ATPase
Extra mitochondrial inheritance:
mtDNA contains plasma genes (extra chromosomal genes)
Transmitted from mother to the offspring
Synthesis of mtDNA, RNA, protein.
 Bring about gene expression through gene duplication
transcription and translation.
Synthesis 13 different polypeptides in human.

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