Friday, February 26, 2021
Mitochondrial Health

Science Driven By Space Biology Omics Data Utilizing NASA’s GeneLab Platform



Abstract for the talk: Determining the biological impact of spaceflight through novel approaches is essential to reduce the health risks to astronauts for long-term space missions. The current established health risks due to spaceflight are only reflecting known symptomatic and physiologic responses and do not reflect early onset of other potential diseases. There are many unknown variables which still need to be identified to fully understand the health impacts due to the environmental factors in space. One method to uncover potential novel biological mechanisms responsible for health risks in astronauts is by utilizing NASA’s GeneLab platform (genelab.nasa.gov). GeneLab is public repository that hosts multiple omics datasets generated from space biology experiments that include experiments flown in space, simulated cosmic radiation experiments, and simulated microgravity experiments. This presentation will provide an example of analysis and novel hypothesis generation that is being produced with GeneLab datasets. A comprehensive multi-omics approach was implemented correlating transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and methylation analysis. We found that cells have stronger overall biological response than the tissues to spaceflight, with mitochondrial activity and innate immunity pathways being heavily impacted. NASA Twin Study results are consistent with a specific alteration in mitochondrial ATP production. Our results indicate that the space environment can directly induce mitochondrial damage, with mitochondrial dysfunctions being a cause for chronic inflammation and both being involved in the development of metabolic disorders that cause changes in lipid metabolism. We also found biological changes occurring during spaceflight with cell cycle, circadian rhythm and olfactory activity pathways can also influence and be influenced by alterations on mitochondrial activity

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