Tuesday, June 22, 2021
Mitochondrial Health

The mitochondrial theory of aging



Video Sponsor: Longevity.Technology – https://longevity.technology/?utm_source=LT&utm_medium=youtube&utm_campaign=SSSmitochondria

Mitochondria are the powerhouses of the cell involved in the generation of ATP, the cellular energy currency. However, during aging mitochondria accumulate mutations in their DNA, show reductions in bioenergetics and damage to their structure and integrity. Is this caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS)? Why is mitochondrial dysfunction a hallmark of aging? What can be done to prevent mitochondrial decline and improve biogenesis? Well, we will take a look at these questions in this video and the current mitochondrial theory of aging.

TIMESTAMPS;
Intro – 00:00
Mitochondria essentials – 00:30
The theories and evidence – 04:00
Treatment/Therapeutic potential? – 09:40

REFERENCES:
(good review) Mammalian Mitochondria and Aging: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cmet.2016.09.017
Mitochondrial DNA mutations, oxidative stress, and apoptosis in mammalian aging
Science, 309 (2005), pp. 481-484
(nice recent background to mitochondria and their cool biochemistry) – Stewart, J.B., Chinnery, P.F. Extreme heterogeneity of human mitochondrial DNA from organelles to populations. Nat Rev Genet 22, 106–118 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41576-020-00284-x
Ultra-Sensitive Sequencing Reveals an..https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003794
(you mean, you haven’t read it already) The hallmarks of aging – https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2013.05.039
Taking a “good” look at free radicals in the aging process – https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tcb.2011.06.008
Sun, N., Youle, R. J., & Finkel, T. (2016). The Mitochondrial Basis of Aging. Molecular cell, 61(5), 654–666. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molcel.2016.01.028
Mok, B.Y., de Moraes, M.H., Zeng, J. et al. A bacterial cytidine deaminase toxin enables CRISPR-free mitochondrial base editing. Nature 583, 631–637 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2477-4

Check out the latest video by @LifeXtenShow – https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Fc-SA9Zbt-U

Icons in intro; “https://www.freepik.com/free-photos-vectors/background”Background vector created by freepik – www.freepik.com

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31 thoughts on “The mitochondrial theory of aging
  1. I eat açaí bowls frequently. Like maybe twice or three times a week. Do you think this is too much sugar intake to be in line with the longevity diet?

  2. I just discovered your channel yesterday. I am currently doing my PhD on mitochondrias and aging, this is a nice coincidence.

    Thanks for the very good content you are providing 🙂

  3. There's also mitochondrial fission-fusion. It's how mitochondria control mitoDNA damage. Fed state promotes fission, Fasting promotes fusion. NAD+/NADH ratio determines fission-fusion ratio. It's possible the longevity benefits ascribed to NAD+ precursors are at least in part due to their role in mitochondrial quality control.

  4. There are thirteen mitochondria genes that are not backed up in the nucleus. Genetically modifying our mitochondria to produce NAD+ would be good.

  5. Great video. I don't understand something. When a cell divides (osmosis, or whatever), the DNA inside the nucleus lines up and then divides the cell into two, splitting in the middle. So presumably, half of all of the stuff in the original cell goes into the new cells. Each new cell has to therefore generate at least 50% more new stuff, including mitochondria. But since these are fresh copies, isn't their mtDNA fresh too, and therefore at least some of the mtDNA should be pristine and undamaged? I guess I don't understand how a lot of these damage mechanisms described by the hallmarks of aging perpetuate themselves, since cells must necessarily die, reproduce, etc and have mechanisms to "fix" a lot of that damage built-in anyway, at least to a degree.

  6. You’re honestly really good at explaining this stuff in a way that my secondary school drop out brain can understand without needing to run away and google word definitions every few seconds lol

    Thanks for the videos

  7. You presentations are very well done. You have developed a wonderful way of presenting a highly complex subject…great work Sheekey. What tools do you use to create your videos.

  8. What about HeLa inmortalized cells…? If this theory was right, we couldn't reach such level of mass producing cells like we do in polio vaccine production. (i.e.). Billions and billions of divisions… Where are those guilty mutations trough so many decades? , which lead the cell to death..

    There is something more that we are missing… Maybe we have to look in mtDNA of HeLa cells, and how this work with apoaptosis in those cells…

    Good job! I like your voice but I think you need a better microphone, at some high frequencies it sounds distorted.

  9. Loved this. Next you should do a video about Lysosomes, lipofuscin, and the fascinating story detailed in chapter 7 of Ending Aging (Upgrading the Biological Incinerators)

  10. I lean towards thinking the mtDNA being from bacteria. In any case, I think it provides some usefulness to have some mtDNA separate from the nucleus and the superior DNA machinery in the nucleus.

    One being that the cell uses it to trigger apoptosis since mitochondria will be seen as “not self” when presented outside of cell.

    My own far-fetch longevity theory, I tend to think it’s a method to cull the aging population if no longer active. No judgement, I just think it might make sense from an evolutionary perspective and being a social animal. If contributing physically to the groups survival I think there might be some mechanisms to keep that contribution. Similarly I think that might explain why caloric restriction has longevity gains.

    Ideally, a member of a group would be physically active AND restricting calories to promote the survival of the group. And I would think those 2 things are more important past the reproductive age.

    Edit: On a side note, I think it’s pretty interesting that mtDNA has to come from the mother (the host) since there wouldn’t be a reproductive method to get any from the father. I bet there is some advantage for being female, considering they have to pass on mtDNA.

  11. You have excellent content, but I wish you could do something about the sound quality. The audio is very bright and the upper frequencies are harsh, making the videoes unpleasant to listen to at medium to high volume. It can probably be solved easily by filtering or changing equipment or mic settings. Ask an audio technician for help.

  12. to Sheekey science love the whiteboard and have copied by hand pausing to draw and listen closely do not alter your brilliant educational tactics others are Luddite woke criticisers

  13. mitochondria citric acid cycle, apoptosis controller powerhouse of the cells, I ask this question how could any cell come into existence without them and how could the mitochondria have been manufactured without the cell machinery"?

  14. taurine amino acid promotes new stem cells as does pomegranate, to cause stem cells to more effectively differentiate bromelain taken internally not with meals will remove scar tissue protein coat allowing physical and chemical contact with the injured area and allowing the stem cell to rebuild the same kind of tissue. regenerative medicine other factors can of course enhance this effect I am a missionary researcher for doctors utilizing Gods phytochemical treasures.

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