Sunday, June 13, 2021
Mitochondrial Health

DNA HUMAN|| BIOLOGY SIENCE|| MICROBIOLOGY #Shorts



In this video I will show you about DNA HUMAN.DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, is the hereditary material in humans and almost all other organisms. Nearly every cell in a person’s body has the same DNA. DNA bases pair up with each other, A with T and C with G, to form units called base pairs. Each base is also attached to a sugar molecule and a phosphate molecule.

DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, is the hereditary material in humans and almost all other organisms. Nearly every cell in a person’s body has the same DNA. Most DNA is located in the cell nucleus (where it is called nuclear DNA), but a small amount of DNA can also be found in the mitochondria (where it is called mitochondrial DNA or mtDNA). Mitochondria are structures within cells that convert the energy from food into a form that cells can use.

The information in DNA is stored as a code made up of four chemical bases: adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). Human DNA consists of about 3 billion bases, and more than 99 percent of those bases are the same in all people. The order, or sequence, of these bases determines the information available for building and maintaining an organism, similar to the way in which letters of the alphabet appear in a certain order to form words and sentences.

DNA bases pair up with each other, A with T and C with G, to form units called base pairs. Each base is also attached to a sugar molecule and a phosphate molecule. Together, a base, sugar, and phosphate are called a nucleotide. Nucleotides are arranged in two long strands that form a spiral called a double helix. The structure of the double helix is somewhat like a ladder, with the base pairs forming the ladder’s rungs and the sugar and phosphate molecules forming the vertical sidepieces of the ladder.

An important property of DNA is that it can replicate, or make copies of itself. Each strand of DNA in the double helix can serve as a pattern for duplicating the sequence of bases. This is critical when cells divide because each new cell needs to have an exact copy of the DNA present in the old cell.

DNA was first observed by Swiss biochemist Friedrich Miescher in 1869, according to a paper published in 2005 in the journal Developmental Biology. Miescher used biochemical methods to isolate DNA — which he called nuclein — from white blood cells and sperm, and determined that it was very different from protein. (The term “nucleic acid” derives from “nuclein.”) But for many years, researchers did not realize the importance of this molecule.

How does DNA function:
Genes encode proteins that perform all sorts of functions for humans (and other living beings). The human gene HBA1, for example, contains instructions for building the protein alpha globin, which is a component of hemoglobin, the oxygen-carrying protein in red blood cells, according to the NLM. To take another example, the gene OR6A2 encodes an olfactory receptor, a protein that detects odors in the nose, scientists reported in 2021 in the journal Gene. Depending on which version of OR6A2 you have, you may love cilantro or think it tastes like soap, according to a study published in 2012 in the journal Flavour.

How is DNA sequenced:
DNA sequencing involves technology that allows researchers to determine the order of bases in a DNA sequence. The technology can be used to determine the order of bases in genes, chromosomes or an entire genome. In 2000, researchers completed a “working draft” sequence of the human genome, according to the National Human Genome Research Institute, and finished the project in 2003.

DNA testing:
A person’s DNA contains information about their heritage, and it can sometimes reveal whether they are at an elevated risk for certain diseases. DNA tests, or genetic tests, are used for a variety of reasons, including to diagnose genetic disorders, to determine whether a person is a carrier of a genetic mutation that they could pass on to their children and to examine whether a person is at risk for a genetic disease. For instance, certain mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes are known to increase the risk of breast and ovarian cancers, and analysis of these genes in a genetic test can reveal whether a person has these mutations.

Genetic test results can have implications for a person’s health, and the tests are often provided along with genetic counseling to help individuals understand the results and consequences.People also use the results of genetic testing to find relatives and learn about their family trees through companies such as Ancestry and MyHeritage.

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