Monday, December 6, 2021
Mitochondrial Health

Genome Organization in Mitochondria and Chloroplast by Dheerendra Kumar



#Genome Organization in Mitochondria and Chloroplast
#B.Sc., B.Tech., M.Sc., M.Tech., Biotech and Life Science, NEET, BCIL, GATE(Biotech and Life Science) & CSIR NET
#Genome Organization in Mitochondria-
Mitochondria play a central role in cellular energy provision. The organelles contain their own genome with a modified genetic code.
The mammalian mitochondrial genome is transmitted exclusively through the female germ line.
The mtDNA encoded polypeptides are all subunits of enzyme complexes of the oxidative phosphorylation system.
Mitochondria are the energy transducing organelles of eukaryotic cells in which fuels to drive cellular metabolism are converted into ATP through the process of oxidative phosphorylation.
#Mitochondria have a double membrane. The outer membrane separates the mitochondrion from the cytosol.
The inner membrane is invaginated to form the cristae which protrude into and define the matrix of the organelle.
The five enzyme complexes of the oxidative phosphorylation system are embedded in the mitochondrial inner membrane. Mitochondria contain their own genome, the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), which is located in the mitochondrial matrix.
In mammalian cells, each organelle generally contains several identical copies of mtDNA.
#Genome Organization in Chloroplast-
Plastids are present in all living plant cells and in Euglena (a protozoan). They are small bodies found free in the cytoplasm.
TYPES OF THE PLASTIDS-:
1. Leucoplasts-The leucoplasts (Gr., leuco = white ; plast = living) are the colourless plastids which are found in embryonic and germ cells.
2. Choromoplasts-The chromoplasts (chroma=colour; plast = living) are the coloured plastids containing carotenoids and other pigments.
3. Chloroplasts- The chloroplast (chlor=green; plast =
living) is most widely occurring in the green algae and
higher plants.

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