Tuesday, October 26, 2021
Mitochondrial Health

|FAT- SOLUBLE VITAMINS || ppt ,ug notes,biology,ppt notes,ug pg notes,11th2th notes



FAT- SOLUBLE VITAMINS
Definition-vitamins are substance which are indispensable for the growth and maintains of the animals organism, which occur both in animals and plants and are present in only small amount of food.
or
the substance distinct from major component of food, require in minute quantities and whose absence causes specific deficiency diseases.
Vitamins are accessory nutrients
Vitamins belong to divers groups chemically
These are not synthesized by most animal cells but supplied to the body from outside source (mainly as food).plants can, however, synthesize them
Vitamins are partly destroyed and are partly excreted.
The liver cells are , however, rich in certain fat soluble vitamins. The amount of VITAMIN-A contained in liver(6 month).VITAMIN- D stored ordinarily in the liver (2 month). VITAMIN –K :relatively slight.
Old people need about the same amount of vitamins as young people.
FAT_SOUBLE VITAMINS-A,D,E,K
WATER SOUBLE VITAMINS-B and C.
OCCURRENCE-egg yolk, cod liver fish oil, skin also produces when exposed to sunlight
STRUCTURE-V.D2 (ergocalciferol), V.D3 (cholecalcifrol)

FUNTIONS-help the body absorb and utilize calcium and phosphorus so to maintain bones, teeth and brain, maintain normal calcium level in blood
PROPERTIES-white, odourless , crystalline structure, heat resistant and not affected by acid and alkalis
V.D3-can be synthesis in with in the human body so it as infect not be required in diet
DEFICIENCY-Rickets(infant) , osteomalacia(adult rickets)
HYPERVITAMINOSIS-calcified cartilage, high calcium level in the blood cases abnormal heart beat and damage kidney

OCCURRENCE-Dairy product, cod liver oil, dark green and yellow vegetables and fruits
STRUCTURE-found two form-A1 , A2
α,β,γ-carotenes and cryptoxanthin
β- carotenes made of eight 5-carbon isoprenoid unit
PROPERTIES-caolourless oil , isolated as pale yellow needles
FUNCTION- maintain eye & healthy hair ,nails and skin ,protection & regeneration of cells and bones,
OCCURRENCE-green leafy vegetables, whole- wheat cereals,
nuts,sprouts,egg yolk
OCCURRENCE-component of mitochondrial lipids
OCCURRENCE-K1-green vegetable spinach , alfalfa, cabbage and fruit
&cereals poor source
OCCURRENCE-isolated from soybean, wheat germ oil, present in alfalfa& fresh cream
STRUCTURE-resemble ergosterol closely
Absence of stigmasterol Stiffness of the wrists & elbows of the guinea pig
The muscles atrophy and become streaked

K2- found in intestinal becteria,rich in putrefied fish meal
STRaUCTURE-K1(yellow oil), K2(yellowish crystalline solid), sensitive to light & kept in dark bottle
FUNCTION-biosynthesis of prothrombin:a blood plasma needed in process of blood clotting, produced in liver
DEFICIENCY- Hemorrhagic (uncontrolled bleeding due to deficiency of clotting)
HYPERVITAMINOSIS-can lead to lever damage

Substance serve as electron transport & involve in formation of ATP
Roles(1967) classified the Coenzyme Q group as Vitamins becouse ability to cure (or protect agent) V.E in several animal species
Also participate in electron transport & oxidative phosphorylation
Isolated from various microbs,cloroplast of green plants & mitochondria of animals

FUNCTIONS-maintain healthy skin and tissue, protects red blood cells, Antioxidant( that may protects cells against the effect of free radicals molecules produced when body breakdown food or its exposed to tobacco smoke and radiation
PROPERTIES-light yellow oil, resistant to heat up(200˚C)
DEFICIENCY- haemolytic anaemia (in infant)
In mature female Rat, sterility develop
HYPERVITAMINOSIS-low thyroxin level ,fertility disease, headache, dizziness ,stomach discomfort

DEFICIENCY- night blindness ,XEROPTHALMIA(dry eyes),KERATOMALACIA(hair softness),PHYNODERMA(eyes and kidney infection, skin lesion)
HYPERVITAMINOSIS- hair loss, dry scaly skin , irritability, swelling over the bones

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