Saturday, November 27, 2021
Mitochondrial Health

mitrochondria ((cell biology)) by:-Rocky sir



A mitochondrion ( plural mitochondria) is a double membrane-bound organelle found in most eukaryotic organisms. Mitochondria generate most of the cell’s supply of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), used as a source of chemical energy.[2] Mitochondria were first discovered by Kolliker (1880 CE) in the voluntary muscles of insects. A mitochondrion is nicknamed the powerhouse of the cell, first coined by Philip Siekevitz in a 1957 article of the same name.[3]mitochondria diagram
Some cells in some multicellular organisms lack mitochondria (for example, mature mammalian red blood cells). A number of unicellular organisms, such as microsporidia, parabasalids, and diplomonads, have reduced or transformed their mitochondria into other structures.[4] One eukaryote, Monocercomonoides, is known to have completely lost its mitochondria,[5] and one multicellular organism, Henneguya salminicola, is known to have retained mitochondrion-related organelles in association with a complete loss of their mitochondrial genome.[5][6][7]

Mitochondria are commonly between 0.75 and 3 μm² in area[8] but they vary considerably in size and structure. Unless specifically stained, they are not visible. In addition to supplying cellular energy, mitochondria are involved in other tasks, such as signaling, cellular differentiation, and cell death, as well as maintaining control of the cell cycle and cell growth.[9] Mitochondrial biogenesis is in turn temporally coordinated with these cellular processes.[10][11] Mitochondria have been implicated in several human diseases and conditions, such as mitochondrial disorders,[12] cardiac dysfunction,[13] heart failure[14] and autism.[15]

The number of mitochondria in a cell can vary widely by organism, tissue, and cell type. A mature red blood cell has no mitochondria,[16] whereas a liver cell can have more than 2000.[17][18] The mitochondrion is composed of compartments that carry out specialized functions. These compartments or regions include the outer membrane, intermembrane space, inner membrane, cristae and matrix.

Although most of a cell’s DNA is contained in the cell nucleus, the mitochondrion has its own genome (“mitogenome”) that is substantially similar to bacterial genomes.[19] Mitochondrial proteins (proteins transcribed from mitochondrial DNA) vary depending on the tissue and the species. In humans, 615 distinct types of proteins have been identified from cardiac mitochondria,[20] whereas in rats, 940 proteins have been reported.[21] The mitochondrial proteome is thought to be dynamically regulated.[22]
Mitochondria may have a number of different shapes.[23] A mitochondrion contains outer and inner membranes composed of phospholipid bilayers and proteins.[17] The two membranes have different properties. Because of this double-membraned organization, there are five distinct parts to a mitochondrion:

The outer mitochondrial membrane,
The intermembrane space (the space between the outer and inner membranes),
The inner mitochondrial membrane,
The cristae space (formed by infoldings of the inner membrane), and
The matrix (space within the inner membrane).
Mitochondria stripped of their outer membrane are called mitoplasts.
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