Saturday, November 27, 2021
Mitochondrial Health

Animal Cell Structure and Function | Notes | Eukaryotic Cell | Basic Science Series



Animal Cell Structure and Function | Notes | Eukaryotic Cell | Basic Science Series

Cell Membrane
-the plasma membrane
-separates the interior from outside environment
-semipermeable
-transport of material
-Membrane proteins
-lipid bilayer
-Phospholipid: Hydrophobic and hydrophilic end
Cytoplasm
-material within a cell
-Nucleoplasm
-Cytosol + organelles
-80% water and usually colorless
Nucleus
-membrane-bound organelle
-RBCs (No nucleus)
-osteoclasts (Many)
-cell’s genome except mitochondrial DNA
-DNA + histone = Chromosomes
Nucleolus
-ribosome biogenesis.
-signal recognition particles (stress response),
-nucleolopathies
-cancer chemotherapy
Endoplasmic Reticulum
-ER are continuous with the outer nuclear membrane
-Not in red blood cells, or spermatozoa
-lipids and cholesterol
-protein synthesis
Mitochondria
-Generate most of the cell’s supply of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
-double-membrane-bound organelle
Vacuole
-Gas Vacuoles
-Central Vacuoles
-Contractile Vacuoles
-stores salts, minerals, nutrients, proteins, pigments, helps in plant growth
Golgi apparatus
-Golgi complex
-Proteins into membrane-bound vesicles
Peroxisome
-membrane-bound organelle
-oxidative organelles
-hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)
-scavenging activities
Ribosome
-Complex cellular structures
-ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and protein
-protein synthesis
-many subunits

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