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Protein synthesis Biology video essay



Please don’t copy right stick me for the images. Done for a project.

sources

https://medlineplus.gov/genetics/understanding/therapy/mrnavaccines/#:~:text=Messenger%20RNA%20is%20a%20type,does%20not%20alter%20DNA.
https://www.genome.gov/genetics-glossary/messenger-rna
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:DNA_Structure%2BKey%2BLabelled.pn_NoBB.png
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DNA
https://www.genome.gov/genetics-glossary/Transfer-RNA
https://www.thoughtco.com/dna-versus-rna-608191
https://bio.libretexts.org/Bookshelves/Introductory_and_General_Biology/Book%3A_General_Biology_(Boundless)/10%3A_Cell_Reproduction/10.2%3A_The_Cell_Cycle/10.2A%3A_Interphase
https://courses.lumenlearning.com/bio1/chapter/reading-steps-of-genetic-transcription/
https://medlineplus.gov/genetics/understanding/basics/noncodingdna/
https://medlineplus.gov/genetics/understanding/basics/gene/
https://medlineplus.gov/genetics/understanding/howgeneswork/geneonoff/
https://medlineplus.gov/genetics/understanding/howgeneswork/geneonoff/
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Promoter_(genetics)
https://www.genome.gov/genetics-glossary/Promoter
https://www.pnas.org/content/110/24/9740
http://www.differencebetween.net/science/difference-between-enhancer-and-promoter/

https://www.khanacademy.org/science/ap-biology/gene-expression-and-regulation/transcription-and-rna-processing/a/overview-of-transcription
https://www.khanacademy.org/science/ap-biology/gene-expression-and-regulation/transcription-and-rna-processing/a/eukaryotic-gene-transcription-going-from-dna-to-mrna
https://www.khanacademy.org/science/biology/gene-expression-central-dogma/transcription-of-dna-into-rna/a/stages-of-transcription
https://www.khanacademy.org/science/biology/gene-expression-central-dogma/transcription-of-dna-into-rna/v/transcription-and-mrna-processing
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC177115/pdf/1773897.pdf
https://www.quora.com/What-are-introns-and-why-is-it-absent-in-prokaryotic-cells
https://dnalc.cshl.edu/resources/3d/rna-splicing.html
https://study.com/academy/answer/why-is-rna-synthesis-not-as-carefully-monitored-for-errors-as-dna-synthesis.html
https://www.visiblebody.com/blog/dna-and-rna-basics-replication-transcription-and-translation
https://www.pnas.org/content/102/47/17008
https://www.technologynetworks.com/applied-sciences/articles/essential-amino-acids-chart-abbreviations-and-structure-324357

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ribosomal_RNA
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transfer_RNA

https://www.khanacademy.org/science/biology/gene-expression-central-dogma/translation-polypeptides/a/trna-and-ribosomes


Images
https://humanbiology.pressbooks.tru.ca/chapter/5-6-protein-synthesis/
https://bio.libretexts.org/Bookshelves/Microbiology/Book%3A_Microbiology_(Boundless)/7%3A_Microbial_Genetics/7.06%3A_Translation%3A_Protein_Synthesis/7.6A%3A_Processing_of_tRNAs_and_rRNAs
https://www.thoughtco.com/dna-versus-rna-608191
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DNA
https://www.genome.gov/genetics-glossary/Transfer-RNA
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transcription_factor
https://www.khanacademy.org/science/ap-biology/gene-expression-and-regulation/transcription-and-rna-processing/a/overview-of-transcription
https://www.khanacademy.org/science/biology/gene-expression-central-dogma/transcription-of-dna-into-rna/a/stages-of-transcription
https://microbenotes.com/eukaryotic-transcription/
https://www.khanacademy.org/science/biology/gene-expression-central-dogma/transcription-of-dna-into-rna/v/transcription-and-mrna-processing
https://www.visiblebody.com/blog/dna-and-rna-basics-replication-transcription-and-translation
https://www.tritechresearch.com/const.html
https://www.technologynetworks.com/applied-sciences/articles/essential-amino-acids-chart-abbreviations-and-structure-324357
https://www.khanacademy.org/science/biology/gene-expression-central-dogma/translation-polypeptides/a/trna-and-ribosomes
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transfer_RNA

https://www.sciencephoto.com/media/743060/view/protein-synthesis-illustration
https://www.paho.org/en/news/31-1-2021-countries-americas-notified-first-covid-19-vaccine-allocations-through-covax
https://www.researchgate.net/figure/Functional-roles-of-eRNA-transcripts-and-enhancer-transcription-Enhancer-RNAs-could_fig1_269283937
https://www.sciencenewsforstudents.org/article/scientists-say-rna
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Enhancer_(genetics)
http://www.differencebetween.net/science/difference-between-enhancer-and-promoter/
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alternative_splicing
https://translational-medicine.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12967-019-2071-4
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Genetic_code

source

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6 thoughts on “Protein synthesis Biology video essay
  1. Protein synthesis is the making of protein. It has two parts, transcription and translation. Transcription is making an RNA copy of a gene of DNA in the nucleus and exporting that RNA copy to the cytoplasm. Translation is having a ribosome use mRNA to make protein. Protein is one of the 4 macromolecules necessary for life and does a wide variety of things such as being an enzyme, being transportation, and providing structure.

    DNA is information that codes for a protein. DNA is one of the 4 macromolecules essential for life and is made only with the 6 basic atoms used by life. DNA is an abbreviation for deoxyribonucleic acid. DNA is composed of a sugar-phosphate backbone and a nitrogenous base. The sugar backbone is made of a phosphate group, deoxyribose (a sugar). The deoxyribose is the first part of DNA’s name. DNA is a polymer, a long chain of molecules, with its monomer called nucleotides. When nucleotides bond together, they form a double helix. DNA bonds together through its backbone, or with the other side of the helix using hydrogen bonds between nitrogenous bases. When DNA backbones bond together, they end in 5’ or 3’ (five primed or three primed) which is reversed in the opposite strand as is shown in the image. The 5’ end has the phosphate group where the 3’ end has a hydroxyl group. Nitrogenous bases are either Adenine (A) Thymine (T) Genuine (G) or Cytosine (C). Only A bonds with T and G with C because of where the hydrogen is in the molecule, with an exception of some error. This rule is called Chargaff's rule. Eukaryotic cells have DNA in the nucleus stored in semi-condensed chromatin shape, meaning they are compacted, but not as much as they are in mitosis. Chromatin proteins, such as histones, compact and organize DNA into these condensed forms. These compacting proteins guide the interactions between DNA and other proteins, helping control which parts of the DNA are transcribed.

  2. This started with the question of what is between mRNA and proteins, specifically. The result was that a complex process using tRNA and rRNA makes shure mRNA, being read three letters at a time gets match to each amino acid.

  3. MLA citing hell

    Reafrance, Genetics Home. “What Are Mrna Vaccines and How Do They Work?: Medlineplus Genetics.” MedlinePlus, U.S. National Library of Medicine, 16 Nov. 2021, https://medlineplus.gov/genetics/understanding/therapy/mrnavaccines/#:~:text=Messenger%20RNA%20is%20a%20type,does%20not%20alter%20DNA.
    “What Are Mrna Vaccines and How Do They Work?: Medlineplus Genetics.” MedlinePlus, U.S. National Library of Medicine, 16 Nov. 2021, https://medlineplus.gov/genetics/understanding/therapy/mrnavaccines/#:~:text=Messenger%20RNA%20is%20a%20type,does%20not%20alter%20DNA.

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