NUMBER 8 OF MY 44 PEARLS FOR HEALTH & FITNESS::
boost that immune!
I AM NOT A DOCTOR AND THIS IS FOR INFORMATIONAL PURPOSES ONLY.
Benefits of L-carnitine injections include:
1. Reduce fatigue and increase energy
2. Enhance athletic performance and post-workout recovery
3. Improve lean muscle strength and lean muscle building
4. Are a powerful antioxidant
5. Slow or reverse some of the negative effects of aging
6. FERTILITY IMPROVEMENT
7. CARDIOVASCULAR IMPROVEMENT
Carnitine is a quaternary ammonium compound involved in metabolism in most mammals, plants, and some bacteria. In support of energy metabolism, carnitine transports long-chain fatty acids into mitochondria to be oxidized for energy production and also participates in removing products of metabolism from cells. Given its key metabolic roles, carnitine is concentrated in tissues like skeletal and cardiac muscles that metabolize fatty acids as an energy source. Healthy individuals, including strict vegetarians, synthesize enough L-carnitine in vivo to not require supplementation.
Carnitine exists as one of two stereoisomers (the two enantiomers d-carnitine (S-(+)-) and l-carnitine (R-(-)-)). Both are biologically active, but only l-carnitine naturally occurs in animals, and d-carnitine is toxic as it inhibits the activity of the l-form. At room temperature, pure carnitine is a white powder and a water-soluble zwitterion with low toxicity. Derived from amino acids, carnitine was first extracted from meat extracts in 1905, leading to its name from Latin, “caro/carnis” or flesh.
Some individuals with genetic or medical disorders (such as preterm infants) cannot make enough carnitine, requiring dietary supplementation. Despite common carnitine supplement consumption among athletes for improved exercise performance or recovery, there is insufficient high-quality clinical evidence to indicate it provides any benefit.
The free-floating fatty acids, released from adipose tissues to the blood, bind to carrier protein molecules known as serum albumin that carry the fatty acids to the cytoplasm of target cells such as the heart, skeletal muscle, and other tissue cells, where they are used for fuel. But before the target cells can use the fatty acids for ATP production and β oxidation, the fatty acids with chain lengths of 14 or more carbons must be activated and subsequently transported into mitochondrial matrix of the cells in three enzymatic reactions of the carnitine shuttle.
The first reaction of the carnitine shuttle is a two-step process catalyzed by a family of isozymes of acyl-CoA synthetase that are found in the outer mitochondrial membrane, where they promote the activation of fatty acids by forming a thioester bond between the fatty acid carboxyl group and the thiol group of coenzyme A to yield a fatty acyl–CoA.
In the first step of the reaction, acyl-CoA synthetase catalyzes the transfer of adenosine monophosphate group (AMP) from an ATP molecule onto the fatty acid generating a fatty acyl–adenylate intermediate and a pyrophosphate group (PPi). The pyrophosphate, formed from the hydrolysis of the two high-energy bonds in ATP, is immediately hydrolyzed to two molecule of Pi by inorganic pyrophosphatase. This reaction is highly exergonic which drives the activation reaction forward and makes it more favorable. In the second step, the thiol group of a cytosolic coenzyme A attacks the acyl-adenylate, displacing AMP to form thioester fatty acyl-CoA.
In the second reaction, acyl-CoA is transiently attached to the hydroxyl group of carnitine to form fatty acyl–carnitine. This transesterification is catalyzed by an enzyme found in the outer membrane of the mitochondria known as carnitine acyltransferase 1 (also called carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1, CPT1).
The fatty acyl–carnitine ester formed then diffuses across the intermembrane space and enters the matrix by facilitated diffusion through carnitine-acylcarnitine translocase (CACT) located on inner mitochondrial membrane. This antiporter return one molecule of carnitine from the matrix to the intermembrane space for every one molecule of fatty acyl–carnitine that moves into the matrix.
In the third and final reaction of the carnitine shuttle, the fatty acyl group is transferred from fatty acyl-carnitine to coenzyme A, regenerating fatty acyl–CoA and a free carnitine molecule. This reaction takes place in the mitochondrial matrix and is catalyzed by carnitine acyltransferase 2 (also called carnitine palmitoyltransferase 2, CPT2), which is located on the inner face of the inner mitochondrial membrane. The carnitine molecule formed is then shuttled back into the intermembrane space by the same cotransporter (CACT) while the fatty acyl-CoA enters β-oxidation.
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