Wednesday, February 1, 2023
Mitochondrial Health

Movement of Substances into and out of the cells- diffusion, osmosis, active transport, phagocytosis



How do cells can take in useful substances and remove metabolic waste by the four transportation mechanisms across cell membranes, diffusion, osmosis, active transport and phagocytosis? Not only will we discuss the movement of substances into and out of the cells, we will explain the theories behind and give an ACTUAL CORRECT idea on osmosis unlike many other videos on YouTube!

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Overall Structure of the videos:

We will first cover the structure of cell membrane, then talk about the four transport mechanisms, diffusion, osmosis, active transport and phagocytosis.

00:00 Introduction
00:30 Structure of Cell Membrane
03:06 Different substances move through the cell membrane through different structures
03:34 Adaptation of Cell Membrane
04:12 Diffusion
05:31 Osmosis
08:32 Active Transport
09:37 Phagocytosis
10:20 Conclusion

Structure of cell membrane is well illustrated by the fluid mosaic model. Protein molecules are interspersed in the fluid phospholipid bilayer in a mosaic pattern. We’ll talk about how the polarity of phospholipid can regulate where the substances enter and leave the cells.

Cell membrane being differentially permeable, substances have to pass through the cell membrane through different means. For example, some of the substances may pass through the channel proteins, some may pass through the carrier proteins while some directly dissolve in the phospholipid bilayer. Their movement has close relationships between the polarity of the substances and the structure of cell membrane. In the video you will know more.

Diffusion, osmosis, active transport, will be used, depending on the materials being exchanged and the concentration gradient between the two sites. Not only will we be discussing the general concept of the mechanisms, we will also discuss the importance and factors facilitating diffusion, osmosis, active transport and phagocytosis.

Diffusion across cell membrane is the net movement of particles from the region of higher concentration to the region of lower concentration (i.e., down the concentration gradient) until an equilibrium state is reached. For example, the diffusion of gases between the capillary and the alveoli, and the absorption of food substances in the small intestine by diffusion.

Osmosis is a special kind of diffusion involving water. Water molecules will move from a place of high water potential to lower water potential. The water potential of water molecules depends on the concentration of solute molecules. There is an inverse relationship between the concentration of solute molecules and the water potential of water molecules. The return of water from the tissue fluid into the capillaries are facilitated by osmosis.

Active transport is the transport mechanism by some of the carrier proteins to help move substances from a region of lower concentration to a region of higher concentration. Energy is required in this process.

Phagocytosis is a process of engulfing other substances or pathogens. It’s the uptake of large particles into the cells by the process of packaging the particles into vacuoles that are formed from the cell membrane.

We will explain the general concept, the theories behind, the uses and factors of these four movement across cell membranes.

Related science subject: BIOLOGY, Cells and Molecules of Life

Learn MORE in the video.

#Diffusion #Osmosis #DrAlanScience
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