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About This Video ……………………
In This Video Lecture You Will Learn Basic Concept Of Genetic Code
Genetic code is a combination of 3 nucleotides, which specify a particular amino acid.
as nonsense codons. These codons are usually present at the end of the gene and
occur in proteins. With four DNA nucleotides (G,C, T and A ) only 42 or 16, diferent pairs
43 or 64 diferent combinations of three, more than enough to code for the 20 amino
punctuation between the three nucleotide units.
using them to synthesize a protein or aminoacyl-tRNA complexes in cell free systems. ‘
of nucleotides could be formed. However, these same nucleotides can be arranged in
hence are also called stop codons. Every gene starts with initiation codon AUG, which
acids. The genetic code is a triplet code and the reading occurs continuously without
three codons UAA, UAG and UGA do not code for any amino acid and hence are known
Khorana tested all the 64 codons by making artiicial mRNAs and triplet codons and
There are three nucleotides in .a codon, because a two nucleotide codon would not
yield enough combinations to code for the 20 diferent amino acids that commonly
After Crick’s initial experiments, Marshall Nirenberg, Philip Leader and Har Gobind
The full genetic code was determinal during m id 60s. Out of 64 codons,
encodes the amino acid methionine.
The genetic code is universal. It is the same in almost all the organisms. For example AGA
not that universal. For example UGA codon is normally a stop codon but, in mitochondria
has been studied. Because of the universality of codon, the genes can be transferred
and AG A and AGG for termination of protein synthesis is instead of arginine. Thus it
from one organism to another and be successfully transcribed and translated in their
speciies arginine in bacteria, in humans and all other organisms whose genetic code
it reads as tryptophan. Likewise AUA was read as methionine instead of isoleucine
The study of genetic code of mitochondrial DNA however, showed that genetic code is
appearsthatgenetic code is not quite universal.
About This Channel…………………
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