Friday, June 9, 2023
Mitochondrial Health


Can NMN be used to increase female fertility?

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Infertility has increased in the US for various reasons, including unhealthy eating habits, increased endometriosis, increased obesity rates as well as other chronic conditions. Nowadays, 12% of women have difficulty conceiving, and this number rises to more than 30% for women over 35, because delayed pregnancies are another important factor leading to fertility issues. Female fertility is not only determined by the number of eggs, but also by their quality, which decreases year after year due to the accumulation of genetic abnormalities.

❓ But what do we know about NMN supplementation?
NMN is one of the most powerful NAD + boosters. We already know that NAD+ is a crucial coenzyme required for healthy aging, DNA repair, and metabolism. And in parallel, we also know that the quality and number of eggs decrease as NAD+ levels diminish as we age. So, the hypothesis was that by boosting NAD + level through NMN supplementation, we could improve female fertility. Researchers tested this hypothesis in mouse models, so let’s go over what they found.

✅NUMBER 1: NMN supplementation improves the quality of eggs by increasing NAD+ levels

By increasing NAD+ levels in aged eggs, NMN supplementation can improve egg quality. Indeed, data show that NMN lowers egg cell death by suppressing the formation of free radicals and DNA damage while protecting the integrity of the DNA structure inside the eggs. This NMN’s ability to protect the DNA of eggs is crucial because DNA abnormalities are a leading cause of infertility, birth defects, or miscarriages. So by improving egg quality, NMN supplementation would increase the number of ovarian follicles, boost the ovulation step, and improve egg maturation.

✅NUMBER 2: NMN supplementation strengthens the sperm binding ability of aged eggs

Researchers demonstrated that NMN supplements strengthen the ability of the eggs to bind to sperm, making fertilization more likely to occur. For successful fertilization, sperm cells must first interact with the zona pellucida, which is a thick extracellular layer that surrounds all mammalian eggs. The number of sperm binding to the zona pellucida in aged eggs is much lower than in young ones but increased significantly after NMN supplementation which eventually increases egg fertilization.

✅NUMBER 3: NMN supplementation restores mitochondrial function in aged eggs

Mitochondria are the powerhouse of the cell, and data show that NMN can improve their activity in aged eggs. First, Sirtuin 1 is a crucial regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis. Researchers found that Sirtuin 1 activity was significantly lower in aged eggs than in younger ones. But by boosting NAD+ levels through NMN supplementation, scientists were able to restore Sirtuin 1 activity, thus promoting mitochondrial health in aged eggs. Another interesting finding is that ATP, a crucial coenzyme produced by mitochondria, was reported significantly lower in aged eggs compared to young ones. Researchers also found that NMN supplementation was able to increase ATP levels, a hallmark of mitochondrial activity.

✅NUMBER 4: NMN supplementation improves IVF outcomes

The researchers finally looked at how the eggs of old mice responded to in vitro fertilization after being treated with NMN. They observed that the eggs had greater diameters after NMN treatment, which is associated with better IVF outcomes. Researchers also cultured those embryos from young and old mice in the presence of NMN. Interestingly, they observed that only embryos from aged female mice had improved maturation. Not the ones from the young mice. This suggests that NMN could improve IVF outcomes in aged mice, but not in younger animals, likely because NAD+ levels have not yet declined in the young ones.

👩‍🔬With substantial therapeutic implications, these findings suggest that NMN could improve egg quality and boost fertility for natural or artificial conception.
But, while these findings in mouse models are promising, more research – particularly in humans – is needed before anything can be concluded.

#nmn #nmnandfertility #solensis


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