#Science #Biology #Cell
📌 Mitochondria is a double-membrane-bound organelle found in most eukaryotic organisms. Mitochondria generate most of the cell’s supply of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), subsequently utilized as a source of chemical energy, using the energy of oxygen released in aerobic respiration at the inner mitochondrial membrane. They were first discovered by Albert von Kölliker in 1880 in the voluntary muscles of insects. The mitochondrion is popularly nicknamed the “powerhouse of the cell”, a phrase coined by Philip Siekevitz in a 1957 article of the same name.
📚Mitochondria may have a number of different shapes. A mitochondrion contains outer and inner membranes composed of phospholipid bilayers and proteins.The two membranes have different properties. Because of this double-membraned organization, there are five distinct parts to a mitochondrion:
🔸The outer mitochondrial membrane
🔸The intermembrane space (the space between the outer and inner membranes),
🔸The inner mitochondrial membrane,
🔸The cristae space (formed by infoldings of the inner membrane), and
🔸The matrix (space within the inner membrane), which is a fluid.
📌Mitochondria have folding to increase surface area, which in turn increases ATP (adenosine triphosphate) production. Mitochondria stripped of their outer membrane are called mitoplasts.
📚The most prominent role of mitochondria is to produce the energy currency of the cell, ATP (i.e., phosphorylation of ADP), through respiration and to regulate cellular metabolism. The central set of reactions involved in ATP production are collectively known as the citric acid cycle, or the Krebs cycle. However, the mitochondrion has many other functions in addition to the production of ATP.
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