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Mitochondrial Health

Plant Breeding and Genetics-MCQs (Part-23) for ICAR-NET/AFO/ICAR-JRF/SRF/IBPS-AFO/NABARD/HDO

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MCQs Series in Vegetable Science Based on Previous Year Question Papers of ICAR-JRF/SRF (2005 to 2021). Important for ICAR-JRF/SRF/NET Exams, IBPS-AFO/AO Exams, State PSC-HDO/ADO/ADA/ADH Exams
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1. Spliceosome is a large molecules complex found in nucleus of eukaryotic cells of plants, animals and fungi, etc. it is assembled from snRNAs and protein complexes that plays an important role in splicing of introns. Spliceosome is absent in cells of bacteria. Prokaryotes are unicellular organisms that do not have a nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles. Prokaryotes are kept in the kingdom Monera, which includes all the bacteria, i.e. Archaea (Archaebacteria) and Bacteria (Eubacteria)

2. What is an additional use of the gel electrophoresis technique? Gel electrophoresis is a laboratory method used to separate mixtures of DNA, RNA, or proteins according to molecular size. In gel electrophoresis, the molecules to be separated are pushed by an electrical field through a gel that contains small pores.

3. Semi-conservative DNA replication was first shown in Bacterium Escherichia coli by Matthew Meselson and Franklin Stahl. In 1958, Matthew Meselson and Franklin Stahl conducted an experiment on E. coli which divides in 20 minutes, to study the replication of DNA.

4. The unequivocal proof that DNA is the genetic material came from the experiments of Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase (1952). They worked with viruses that infect bacteria called bacteriophages. The bacteriophage attaches to the bacteria and its genetic material then enter the bacterial cell.

5. Most DNA is located in the cell nucleus (where it is called nuclear DNA), but a small amount of DNA can also be found in the mitochondria (where it is called mitochondrial DNA or mtDNA). Mitochondria are structures within cells that convert the energy from food into a form that cells can use.

7. The three most common ways that bacteria diversify their DNA are transformation, conjugation, and transduction. However, not all types of bacterial cells are capable of engaging in all three processes. The most common mechanism for horizontal gene transmission among bacteria, especially from a donor bacterial species to different recipient species, is conjugation.
9. The term chromosome comes from the Greek words for color (chroma) and body (soma). Scientists gave this name to chromosomes because they are cell structures, or bodies, that are strongly stained by some colorful dyes used in research.
11. The world’s first commercial cotton hybrid, Hybrid-4 (H-4), was developed in 1970 by the scientist Chandrakant T. Patel. The crop revolutionised cotton farming in India.

12. Chandrakant T. Patel, (11 July 1917 – 25 December 1990) was a cotton scientist, who developed the first commercial cotton hybrid, known as Hybrid-4.

13. The first CGMS based cotton hybrid was released for commercial cultivation in the Vidarbha region of Maharashtra under the name of PKV Hy3 while was developed at Cotton Research Station of Punjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth (PDKV), Akola in 1993.

14. ICPH 8, the world’s first pigeonpea hybrid, was released jointly by ICRISAT and ICAR in 1991. The hybrid yields 25-30% more than pure line cultivars in farmers’ fields. Moreover, it is drought-tolerant.
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