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why mitochondria is called powerhouse of the cell| Class-XI ( Botany) Reasoning Questions.

Class-XI ( Short Reasoning Questions)

Why mitochondria is called power house of the cell?

Mitochondria: Powerhouse of Cell
Mitochondria are often referred to as the “powerhouses of the cell” because they play a central role in producing energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). ATP is the main energy currency of cells and is essential for various cellular processes.

Mitochondria generate ATP through a process called cellular respiration, specifically aerobic respiration, which occurs in the presence of oxygen. This process takes place in the inner mitochondrial membrane, where several enzymatic reactions occur within specialized structures called the electron transport chain and ATP synthase.

During cellular respiration, the mitochondria break down glucose and other molecules derived from nutrients in a series of biochemical reactions. This breakdown process releases energy stored in these molecules, which is then harnessed to produce ATP. The electrons released during these reactions are shuttled along the electron transport chain, creating a flow of protons across the inner mitochondrial membrane. This flow of protons generates an electrochemical gradient, and ATP synthase uses this gradient to produce ATP.

Since ATP is involved in powering numerous cellular processes, including muscle contraction, DNA synthesis, active transport, and overall metabolism, mitochondria are essential for the cell’s energy needs. Therefore, they are often described as the powerhouses of the cell due to their vital role in energy production

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