Friday, September 22, 2023
Mitochondrial Health

DNA to Protein

The flow of information from DNA to RNA to proteins is one of the fundamental principles of molecular biology. It is so important that it is sometimes called the “central dogma.” Through the processes of transcription and translation, information from genes is used to make proteins.

Only about 1 percent of DNA is made up of protein-coding genes; the other 99 percent is noncoding. Noncoding DNA does not provide instructions for making proteins

DNA or deoxyribonucleic acid is a long molecule that contains our unique genetic code. Like a recipe book it holds the instructions for making all the proteins in our bodies. facts What is a gene? Genes are small sections of DNA within the genome that code for protein

Adenine, thymine, cytosine and guanine are the four nucleotides found in DNA.

केवल लगभग 1 प्रतिशत डीएनए प्रोटीन-कोडिंग जीन से बना होता है ; अन्य 99 प्रतिशत नॉनकोडिंग है। नॉनकोडिंग डीएनए प्रोटीन बनाने के लिए निर्देश नहीं देता है।

The primary function of RNA is to create proteins via translation. RNA carries genetic information that is translated by ribosomes into various proteins necessary for cellular processes. mRNA, rRNA, and tRNA are the three main types of RNA involved in protein synthesis.
DNA is made up of four building blocks called nucleotides: adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C). The nucleotides attach to each other (A with T, and G with C) to form chemical bonds called base pairs, which connect the two DNA strands.
DNA polymerase (DNAP) is a type of enzyme that is responsible for forming new copies of DNA, in the form of nucleic acid molecules. Nucleic acids are polymers, which are large molecules made up of smaller, repeating units that are chemically connected to one another.
DNA, RNA, and protein are all closely related. DNA contains the information necessary for encoding proteins, although it does not produce proteins directly. RNA carries the information from the DNA and transforms that information into proteins that perform most cellular functions.
Deoxyribonucleic acid | C15H31N3O13P2 | CID 44135672 – PubChem.
Enzymes are proteins comprised of amino acids linked together in one or more polypeptide chains.24
Nucleic acids, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA), carry genetic information which is read in cells to make the RNA and proteins by which living things function. The well-known structure of the DNA double helix allows this information to be copied and passed on to the next generation

kilobase (kb) is a unit of measurement in molecular biology equal to 1000 base pairs of DNA or RNA. The total number of DNA base pairs on Earth is estimated at 5.0×1037 with a weight of 50 billion tonnes.

The four bases in DNA are adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), and thymine (T). These bases form specific pairs (A with T, and G with C).
Amylase (made in the mouth and pancreas; breaks down complex carbohydrates) Lipase (made in the pancreas; breaks down fats) Protease (made in the pancreas; breaks down proteins)
Most DNA is located in the cell nucleus (where it is called nuclear DNA), but a small amount of DNA can also be found in the mitochondria (where it is called mitochondrial DNA or mtDNA). Mitochondria (Figure 5) are structures within cells that convert the energy from food into a form that cells can use.

Coenzymes are organic compounds that facilitate the action of enzymes and can bind temporarily or permanently to an enzyme. Coenzymes can catalyze reactions, but not as effectively as when in conjunction with an enzyme.
The male reproductive system creates sperm that is manufactured in the seminiferous tubules within each testicle. The head of the sperm contains the DNA, which when combined with the egg’s DNA, will create a new individual
The molecule ATP (adenosine triphosphate) can function as a coenzyme. When a phosphate group is removed, turning ATP into ADP (adenosine diphosphate), energy is released. Since many chemical reactions require energy, cells can use ATP to give energy to a reaction to assist in changing the substrate to product.
ATP is a Nucleotide

ATP not only stores energy, it is one of the building blocks of RNA—along with UTP, CTP, and GTP. Molecular machines inside all cells, called RNA polymerases, link these building blocks together into long chains to make messenger, transfer, ribosomal, and other types of RNA
rt tution center
RT Tuition Centre
Rajiv Tasham
class 12th biology
class 11th biology

#science #ssc #biology #biologyclass12 #chemistry #biochemistry #cbseboard #cbse #hbse #hssc #ssc2023 #dna #dnagaming #rna #dsssb #dsssbtgt #dsssbnotice


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