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As mammals age, their extracellular matrix (ECM) becomes stiff due to various mechanisms, leading to negative consequences such as skin aging, hypertension, and oxidative stress. Glycation of proteins and chronic ECM stiffening have been linked to lifespan limitations. Zombie cells, or hyperactive senescent cells, are produced in response to ECM stiffening, leading to chronic inflammation. High blood glucose levels accelerate glycation and ECM stiffening, affecting diabetics more severely. Calorie restriction and dietary approaches like the ketogenic-carnivore diet have shown promise in extending lifespan. Certain medications and supplements, such as metformin and ginger, can reduce blood glucose levels and inhibit the production of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs).
Dietary AGEs can be restricted to improve wound healing and cardiovascular health. Glycation of collagen fibers in blood vessels leads to chronic hypoxia and oxidative stress. Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mtROS) contribute to aging, and enhancing lysosomal function can help prevent age-related conditions. Bacterial enzymes can be used to degrade waste in the body, such as collagen, AGEs, and lipofuscin. Challenges include culturing bacteria and delivering the enzymes safely. Traditional foods like Thai papaya salad and Swedish fermented herring contain bacterial enzymes that degrade collagen.
Nattokinase, bromelain, and papain are natural proteases that aid digestion. Bio-enhancers can improve enzyme bioavailability by activating macrophages in the gut. Producing bacterial enzymes involves using bioreactors and feeding bacteria with specific nutrients. Initial experiments with atherosclerosis remedy led to significant reductions in blood pressure and improved sleep quality. Clinical trials are necessary for medical care.
Another remedy aims to break down collagen and improve organ elasticity. Regular intake led to increased lung capacity and potential skin rejuvenation. While bacterial enzymes are crucial, a healthy lifestyle including proper diet, exercise, and sleep is essential. The decline in health among older individuals necessitates addressing age-related degeneration. Extending the health span has significant benefits. Research in this field requires substantial effort and financial support.