Unit 2 Cellular Organization
Structural organization and function of intracellular organelles (Cell wall, nucleus, mitochondria, Golgi bodies, lysosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, peroxisomes, plastids, vacuoles, chloroplast, structure & function of cytoskeleton and its role in motility).
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Double-membrane structure; the outer membrane is continuous with the endoplasmic reticulum
5:04 The inner nuclear membrane contains proteins that act as binding sites for chromosomes and for the nuclear lamina.
7:42 Nuclear lamina
Fibrous network on the inner surface of the nuclear envelope composed of lamin intermediate filaments that provides structural support for the nuclear envelope and also acts as an anchoring
filaments that provides structural support for the nuclear envelope and also acts as an anchoring
10:31 The inner membrane is surrounded by the outer nuclear membrane, which is continuous protein synthesis.
12:16Transport of proteins from the cytoplasm into the nucleus and movement of macromolecules, including mRNAs, tRNAs, and ribosomal subunits, out of the nucleus occurs through nuclear pores, which span both membranes of the nuclear envelope.
13:52Each nuclear pore is formed from an elaborate structure termed the nuclear pore complex (NPC), which is one of the largest discrete protein assemblages in the cell.
16:49 In one minute, each NPC is estimated to import 60,000 protein molecules into the nucleus,
19:01 An NPC is made up of many copies of some 30 different proteins called nucleoporins.
22:48The nucleoporins are of three types:
a. Structural nucleoporins
28:14 structural motif repeated several times within the Y-complex is closely related to a structure 28:14 structural motif repeated several times within the Y-complex is closely related to a structure found in the COPII proteins that drive the formation of coated vesicles within cells.
Large group of proteins that make up the nuclear pore complex. one class (FG-nucleoporins) participates in nuclear import and export.
35:44 All proteins found in the nucleus, histones, transcription factors, & DNA & RNA polymerases are synthesized in the cytoplasm and imported into the nucleus through nuclear pore complexes.
18 38:42. NLSs were first discovered through the analysis of mutations of the gene for large T-
39:38The wild-type form of large T-antigen is localized to the nucleus in virus-infected cells, whereas some mutated forms of large T-antigen accumulate in the cytoplasm.
40:14The mutations responsible for this altered cellular localization occur within a specific seven-residue sequence rich in basic amino acids near the C-terminus of the protein:
A general class of proteins that facilitate protein transport into or out of the nucleus by binding to a nuclear import sequence or a nuclear export sequence.
48:03 The mechanism for the import of cytoplasmic cargo proteins mediated by a nuclear transport receptor known as importin.
52:24 Ran is a small monomeric G protein
ribonuclear protein complexes that shuttle between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Such shuttling proteins contain NES.
1:03:59 Shuttling protein have identified at least three different types of NESs:
1:06:25 Nuclear export mechanism are of two types: