Saturday, September 30, 2023
Mitochondrial Health

I Part B Pointer I Mitochondria I Shruti Shukla |

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5:55 Mitochondria diameter of 0.5–1μm, dynamic, moving about the cell, constantly changing
8:09The cristae’s membranes are the site of ATP synthesis thus the invaginations increase the
10:18 Crista junction- The connection between the inner boundary membrane and a crista
(mitochondrial contact site and cristae organizing system).
14:15 MICOS mediates close juxtaposition of the outer membrane and inner membrane by binding
15:42 The binding partners for MICOS in the outer membrane are Tom and SAM protein
17:43 MICOS function as a diffusion barrier to prevent mixing of the distinct proteins and lipids in t
20:50 The most abundant protein in the outer mitochondrial membrane is a mitochondrial β-barrel
A multifunctional transmembrane channel protein (similar in structure to bacterial porins) allow passing of ions and most small hydrophilic molecules (up to about 5000 Da).
23:32 Mitochondria are associated with the cytoskeleton, which determines their distribution in
24:50 In highly polarized cells, mitochondria can move long distances being propelled along
26:39 In other cells, mitochondria remain fixed at points of high energy demand.
29:34 In mitochondria, the metabolism of sugars is complete: allows 15 times more ATP to be made from a sugar than by glycolysis alone.
30:50 Functions of Mitochondria-
34:47 mtDNA is located in the mitochondrial matrix, and in the rapidly growing cells, mtDNA is often seen in regions devoid of densely stacked cristae.
36:08 A human cell has about 1000–2000 mtDNA molecules
38:17 The mtDNAs of most multicellular animals are approximately 16-kb circular molecules that encode intron-less genes compactly arranged on both DNA strands.
A human egg has about 500,000 mtDNA molecules
A sperm has only about 100 mtDNA molecules
39:42 Vertebrate mtDNAs encode 2 rRNAs, 22 tRNAs, and 13 proteins involved in electron transport and ATP synthesis.
41:20 The smallest mitochondrial genomes in Plasmodium, are only about 6 kb, encoding three proteins and the mitochondrial rRNAs.
Arabidopsis thaliana, has 366 kb of mtDNA and cucurbit plants have about 2 Mb of mtDNA.
43:33 Chloramphenicol, blocks protein synthesis by bacterial and mitochondrial ribosomes
Cycloheximide, does not affect protein synthesis by mitochondrial ribosomes
49:49 Only 22 tRNAs are required for mitochondrial protein synthesis. The normal codon–anticodon pairing rules are relaxed in mitochondria, so that many tRNA molecules recognize any one of the four nucleotides in the third (wobble) position, allowing four codons to be recognized by a single tRNA.
58:05 Deletions in mtDNA cause another set of diseases: Chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia Kearns–Sayre syndrome
59:06 Single mutation in the TΨCG loop of the mitochondrial lysine tRNA “Ragged-red” muscle fibers & uncontrolled jerky movements
59:56 Mitochondrial fusion and fission are mediated by a set of GTPase enzymes:
Mitochondrial fusion -MFN1/2 & OPA1
Mitochondrial fission- DRP1
1:02:07 Mitophagy provides Mitochondrial Quality Control
1:04:38 When the environment of a cell has inadequate oxygen, enzymatic modification of proteins on the outer mitochondrial membrane induces mitophagy.


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