Mitochondria are double-membraned, rod-shaped organelles found in most eukaryotic cells, serving as the cell’s powerhouses. They are primarily responsible for producing adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the cell’s main energy currency, through oxidative phosphorylation, a process that involves the electron transport chain and the Krebs cycle. Mitochondria are unique among cellular organelles because they contain their own DNA and replicate independently of the cell. Besides energy production, they play essential roles in regulating cellular metabolism, apoptosis (cellular programmed death), and calcium signaling. Mitochondria are often referred to as the “cellular powerhouses” due to their central role in energy generation and their influence on various cellular processes.