Wednesday, February 28, 2024
Mitochondrial Health

#85 – Iñigo San Millán, Ph.D.: Mitochondria, train, and metabolic well being

On this episode, Dr. Iñigo San Millán, Assistant Professor on the College of Colorado Faculty of Medication, explains the essential position of mitochondrial perform in every part from metabolic well being to elite train efficiency. Iñigo offers a masterclass into the numerous completely different vitality system pathways, the assorted gas sources (together with the misunderstood lactate), the six zones of train coaching, and the parameters he makes use of to measure metabolic well being. Moreover, he highlights the ability of zone 2 coaching in its capability to behave as a robust diagnostic device, and maybe extra importantly as a therapy for mitochondrial and metabolic dysfunction.


We talk about:

  • Iñigo’s background in sports activities and choice to concentrate on schooling [7:15];
  • Explaining the assorted vitality programs and fuels used throughout train [14:45];
  • Iñigo qualifies vitality programs into six coaching zones [23:00]; 
  • Lactate is a crucial gas supply [33:00];
  • Zone 2 coaching—physiologic traits, gas sources, lactate, and the transition into zone 3 [40:30];
  • Utilizing blood lactate ranges (and zone-2 threshold) to evaluate mitochondrial perform [47:00];
  • Accessing mitochondrial perform by taking a look at one’s capability to make the most of fats as gas (with an RQ check) [55:00];
  • Athletes vs. metabolically in poor health sufferers—mitochondria, fats oxidation, muscle glycogen capability, “fats droplets”, and extra [1:00:00];
  • Physiologic traits of zone 3, zone 4, and the lactate threshold [1:20:00];
  • Fueling train—dietary implications on glycolytic perform [1:30:30];
  • Relationship between train and insulin sensitivity (and what we will be taught from finding out sufferers with sort 1 diabetes) [1:46:30];
  • Metformin’s affect on mitochondrial perform, lactate manufacturing, and the way this impacts the advantages of train [2:04:15];
  • Elevating consciousness for threat of “double diabetes” [2:15:00];
  • How you can dose zone 2 coaching, and balancing train with diet [2:18:00];
  • Proposed rationalization of the Warburg Impact: Function of lactate in carcinogenesis [2:27:00];
  • Doping in biking, and the pattern in the direction of altitude coaching [2:39:15] and;
  • Extra.


Iñigo’s background in sports activities and choice to concentrate on schooling [7:15]

  • He works with elite and leisure athletes in his medical and analysis work and he was an athlete himself 
  • Grew up in spain, performed fútbol for Actual Madrid Academy for six years
  • At 16, he found biking and adjusted sports activities – racing professionally for six years
  • He turned very aware of every part the game entails at an elite degree 
  • The excellence between capability of high caliber cyclists just isn’t refined 

    • Reducing classes symbolize greater capability ranges with category 1 being the speedy step under skilled degree
    •  even between class one collegiate athletes 
    • At an expert degree there’s a step between a home and European professional and furthermore, between a European professional and a serious staff
  • Iñigo left racing behind when he determined to concentrate on his research – did an internship at a sports activities medication clinic in Spain the place Platelet Rich Plasma Therapy (PRP) was developed  
  • Has been on the College of Colorado for 11 years
  • Works with skilled biking groups and has developed a protocol for zone 2 training as a means to enhance and check mitochondrial perform 


Explaining the assorted vitality programs and fuels used throughout train [14:45]

  • Defines metabolic coaching zones by sort of muscle fiber recruitment and whether or not vitality demand is cardio and anaerobic 
  • Exterior of sprinting, we do the vast majority of exercise in an cardio state
  • Gasoline sort utilized used to provide vitality is what modifications
  • Peter refers to cardio and anaerobic vitality programs in a earlier blog post 

“The immense majority of exercise that we do is cardio. We are likely to imagine that any laborious effort is anaerobic, and subsequently the idea of anaerobic threshold. However truly, even what we name the anaerobic threshold is cardio exercise. Nearly all of the efforts that we do are in an cardio atmosphere apart from if you do a dash…or a one minute maximal.” – Iñigo San Millán, Ph.D.

Muscle Fiber Kind

  • Relying on the vitality system (coaching zone) completely different muscle fibers are recruited 

    • “Gradual” and “quick” twitch fibers require completely different power 
    • The velocity refers to how rapidly the fibers fatigue 
  • Kind I muscle fibers are used throughout low depth workouts 

    • Don’t have to contract as forcefully 
    • Have a excessive oxidative and low glycolytic capability
  • Velocity refers to how rapidly they fatigue
  • sort 2 fiber divided into 2A and 2B

    • IIA have excessive oxidative and  glycolytic capability and fatigue comparatively slowly 
    • IIB have low oxidative and excessive glycolytic capability and fatigue rapidly (recruited for anaerobic dash – brief time length beneath stress)
  • Fatigue quicker as a result of metabolically extra confused 

Mobile Fuels

  • Major fuels: fatty acids and glucose 
  • Fatty acids are the mobile gas supply for decrease depth actions…

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Iñigo San Millán, Ph.D.

Iñigo San Millán, Ph.D. is an Assistant Professor on the University of Colorado School of Medicine, the place his areas of analysis, medical work, and pursuits embrace train metabolism, diet, sports activities efficiency, overtraining, diabetes, most cancers, and demanding care.  He’s internationally famend utilized physiologist having labored for the previous 20 years for a lot of skilled groups and elite athletes worldwide throughout a number of sports activities like working, soccer, soccer, basketball, rowing, triathlon, swimming, Olympics and biking, together with eight Professional Biking Groups. Iñigo has additionally been a advisor in train physiology and sports activities medication to worldwide organizations just like the US Olympic Committee and the Worldwide Biking Union. He has been a pioneer in growing new methodologies for monitoring athletes on the metabolic and physiological degree together with a novel technique to measure mitochondrial perform and metabolic flexibility in addition to the invention of the primary technique to measure skeletal muscle glycogen in a non-invasive means utilizing excessive frequency ultrasound. Beforehand, Inigo was a aggressive athlete and performed soccer for six years for Actual Madrid soccer academy staff in addition to raced as an expert bike owner for two years. He additionally returns to Spain each summer time to run with the bulls. []

Twitter: @doctorinigo

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